6 Hypothesis tests with one sample

In chapter 4, we discussed the general framework for hypothesis testing, and in chapter 5, we saw this framework in operation when trying to compare an observed distribution to a theoretical distribution using the $\chi ^2$ goodness of fit test. When introducing hypothesis testing, we assumed that the biological hypothesis of interest referred to the mean of a population. In fact, this is a common application within biostatistics. A single sample is taken from some biological population of interest, and then a variety of hypotheses about the parameters of that population are tested. This chapter will describe a variety of hypothesis tests that apply in this situation.