# 6 Hypothesis tests with one sample

In chapter 4, we discussed the general
framework for hypothesis testing, and in chapter 5,
we saw this framework in operation when trying to compare an observed
distribution to a theoretical distribution using the $\chi ^2$
goodness of fit test. When introducing hypothesis testing, we assumed
that the biological hypothesis of interest referred to the mean of a
population. In fact, this is a common application within biostatistics.
A single sample is taken from some biological population of interest,
and then a variety of hypotheses about the parameters of that population
are tested. This chapter will describe a variety of hypothesis tests
that apply in this situation.